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The town that grew up around it was called Casa Branca, meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between and , the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration.
As Portugal broke ties with Spain in , Casablanca came under fully Portuguese control once again. The town was finally reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah — , the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington , with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium.
In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased the British, in return, began importing gunpowder tea , used in Morocco's national drink, mint tea.
By , this rose to ,,  largely through the development of shanty towns. The Treaty of Algeciras of formalized French preeminence in Morocco and included three measures that directly impacted Casablanca: that French officers would control operations at the customs office and seize revenue as collateral for loans given by France, that the French holding company La Compagnie Marocaine would develop the port of Casablanca , and that a French-and-Spanish-trained police force would be assembled to patrol the port.
To build the port's breakwater, narrow-gauge track was laid in June for a small Decauville locomotive to connect the port to a quarry in Roches Noires , passing through the sacred Sidi Belyout graveyard.
In resistance to this and the measures of the Treaty of Algeciras, tribesmen of the Chaouia attacked the locomotive, killing 9 Compagnie Marocaine laborers—3 French, 3 Italians, and 3 Spanish.
In response, the French bombarded the city with multiple gunboats and landed troops inside the town, causing severe damage and 15, dead and wounded.
In the immediate aftermath of the bombardment and the deployment of French troops, the European homes and the Mellah , or Jewish quarter, were sacked, and the latter was also set ablaze.
The bombardment and military invasion of the city effectively began the French military conquest of Morocco , although French control of Casablanca was not formalized until the French Protectorat was established by the Treaty of Fes March General Hubert Lyautey assigned the planning of the new colonial port city to Henri Prost.
As he did in other Moroccan cities, Prost designed a European ville nouvelle outside the walls of the medina. Europeans formed almost half the population of Casablanca.
American forces captured Casablanca from Vichy control when France surrendered November 11, , but the Naval Battle of Casablanca continued until American forces sank German submarine U on November The air field has since become Mohammed V International Airport.
Roosevelt discussed the progress of the war. Also in attendance were the Free France generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud , though they played minor roles and didn't participate in the military planning.
It was at this conference that the Allies adopted the doctrine of "unconditional surrender," meaning that the Axis powers would be fought until their defeat.
Roosevelt also met privately with Sultan Muhammad V and expressed his support for Moroccan independence after the war.
April 7, , a massacre of working class Moroccans, carried out by Senegalese Tirailleurs in the service of the French colonial army , was instigated just as Sultan Muhammed V was due to make a speech in Tangier appealing for independence.
Riots in Casablanca took place from December 7—8, , in response to the assassination of the Tunisian labor unionist Farhat Hached by La Main Rouge —the clandestine militant wing of French intelligence.
Morocco gained independence from France in January 4—7, , the city hosted an ensemble of progressive African leaders during the Casablanca Conference of Casablanca was a major departure point for Jews leaving Morocco through Operation Yachin , an operation conducted by Mossad to secretly migrate Moroccan Jews to Israel between November and spring King Hassan II blamed the events on teachers and parents, and declared in a speech to the nation on March 30, "There is no greater danger to the State than a so-called intellectual.
It would have been better if you were all illiterate. On June 6, , the Casablanca Bread Riots took place.
In March , more than 60 women's groups organized demonstrations in Casablanca proposing reforms to the legal status of women in the country.
Although the counter-demonstration attracted half a million participants, the movement for change started in was influential on King Mohammed VI , and he enacted a new mudawana , or family law, in early , meeting some of the demands of women's rights activists.
On 16 May , 33 civilians were killed and more than people were injured when Casablanca was hit by a multiple suicide bomb attack carried out by Moroccans and claimed by some to have been linked to al-Qaeda.
Twelve suicide bombers struck five locations in the city. Another series of suicide bombings struck the city in early As calls for reform spread through the Arab world in , Moroccans joined in, but concessions by the ruler led to acceptance.
However, in December, thousands of people demonstrated in several parts of the city, especially the city center near la Fontaine, desiring more significant political reforms.
Casablanca is located on the Chaouia Plains which has historically been the breadbasket of Morocco. The only watercourse in Casablanca is oued Bouskoura ,  a small seasonal creek that until reached the Atlantic Ocean near the actual port.
Most of oued Bouskoura's bed has been covered due to urbanization and only the part south of El Jadida road can now be seen.
Casablanca has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification Csa. The cool Canary Current off the Atlantic coast moderates temperature variation, which results in a climate remarkably similar to that of coastal Los Angeles , with similar temperature ranges.
The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are The Grand Casablanca region is considered the locomotive of the development of the Moroccan economy.
One of the most important Casablancan exports is phosphate. Other industries include fishing, fish canning, sawmills, furniture production, building materials, glass, textiles, electronics, leather work, processed food, spirits, soft drinks, and cigarettes.
The Sindbad park is planned to be totally renewed with rides, games and entertainment services. Casablanca is a commune, part of the region of Casablanca-Settat.
The commune is divided into eight districts or prefectures, which are themselves divided into 16 subdivisions or arrondissements and one municipality.
The districts and their subdivisions are: . The commune of Casablanca recorded a population of 3,, in the Moroccan census. Grand Casablanca is also the largest urban area in the Maghreb.
The city also is still home for a small community of Moroccan Christians , as well as a small group of foreign resident Roman Catholics.
Jews have a long history in Casablanca. A Sephardic Jewish community was in Anfa up to the destruction of the city by the Portuguese in Jews were slow to return to the town, but by , the Rabbi Elijah Synagogue was built as the first Jewish synagogue in Casablanca.
It was destroyed along with much of the town in the Lisbon earthquake. Approximately 28, Moroccan Jews immigrated to the State of Israel between and , many through Casablanca.
Today, the Jewish cemetery of Casablanca is one of the major cemeteries of the city, and many synagogues remain in service, but the city's Jewish community has dwindled.
The Moroccan Jewish Museum is a museum established in the city in Most of the city's places of worship are Muslim mosques.
Casablanca is home to two popular football clubs: Wydad Casablanca  and Raja Casablanca  —which are rivals.
It first began in , and is played on clay courts type at Complexe Al Amal. Morocco was scheduled to host the African Nations Cup , but decided to decline due to Ebola fears.
Morocco was expelled and the tournament was held in Equatorial Guinea. The Grand Stade de Casablanca is the proposed title of the planned football stadium to be built in the city.
Once completed in , it will be used mostly for football matches and will serve as the home of Raja Casablanca , Wydad Casablanca , and the Morocco national football team.
The stadium was designed with a capacity of 93, spectators, making it one of the highest-capacity stadiums in Africa.
Once completed, it will replace the Stade Mohamed V. Nevertheless, the Moroccan government supported the decision to go ahead with the plans.
It will be completed in Abdelakabir Faradjallah founded Attarazat Addahabia , a Moroccan funk band, in Hoba Hoba Spirit also formed in Casablanca, and is still based there.
Casablanca hosts numerous music festivals, such as Jazzablanca and L'Boulevard ,   as well as a museum dedicated to Andalusi music , Dar ul-Aala.
Mohamed Zafzaf lived in Maarif. Lamalif , a radical leftist political and cultural magazine, was based in Casablanca.
Tayeb Saddiki , described as the father of Moroccan theater, grew up in Casablanca and made his career there. Gad Elmaleh is another comedian from Casablanca, though he has made his career abroad.
L'Uzine is a community-based art and culture space in Casablanca. Sbagha Bagha is a street art festival during which murals are created on the sides of apartment buildings.
Gabriel Veyre also worked and eventually died in Casablanca. Marcelin Flandrin , a French military photographer, settled in Casablanca and recorded much of the early colonial period in Morocco with his photography.
Casablanca has a thriving street photography scene. In the first half of the 20th century, Casablanca had many movie theaters, such as Cinema Rialto , Cinema Lynx and Cinema Vox —the largest in Africa at the time it was built.
The American film Casablanca is supposedly set in Casablanca and has had a lasting impact on the city's image, though it was filmed entirely in California and doesn't feature a single Moroccan character with a speaking role.
Love in Casablanca , starring Abdelkarim Derqaoui and Muna Fettou , is one of the first Moroccan films to deal with Morocco's complex realities and depict life in Casablanca with verisimilitude.
Nour-Eddine Lakhmari 's Casanegra depicts the harsh realities of Casablanca's working classes. Casablanca's architecture and urban development are historically significant.
The city is home to many notable buildings in a variety of styles, including traditional Moroccan architecture, various colonial architectural styles, Art Nouveau , Art Deco , Neo-Mauresque , Streamline Moderne , Modernism , Brutalism , and more.
The Casablanca Tramway is the rapid transit tram system in Casablanca. As of , the network consists of two lines covering Since the s, Casablanca had planned to build a metro system to offer some relief to the problems of traffic congestion and poor air quality.
Casablanca is well-served by international flights to Europe, especially French and Spanish airports, and has regular connections to North American, Middle Eastern and sub-Saharan African destinations.
The older, smaller Casablanca-Anfa Airport to the west of the city, served certain destinations including Damascus , and Tunis , and was largely closed to international civilian traffic in It has been closed and destroyed to build the " Casablanca Finance City ", the new heart of the city of Casablanca.
Compagnie de Transports au Maroc CTM offers private intercity coach buses on various lines run servicing most notable Moroccan towns, as well as a number of European cities.
Supratours, an affiliate of ONCF , also offers coach bus service at a slightly lower cost, departing from a station on Wilad Zian Street.
Registered taxis in Casablanca are coloured red and known as petit taxis small taxis , or coloured white and known as grands taxis big taxis.
As is standard Moroccan practice, petits taxis, typically small-four door Dacia Logan , Peugeot , or similar cars, provide metered cab service in the central metropolitan areas.
Grands taxis, generally older Mercedes-Benz sedans, provide shared mini-bus like service within the city on predefined routes, or shared intercity service.
Grands taxis may also be hired for private service by the hour or day. Casablanca is served by three main railway stations run by the national rail service, the ONCF.
It also serves as the southern terminus of the Al-Boraq high speed line from Tangier. A dedicated airport shuttle service to Mohammed V International Airport also has its primary in-city stop at this station, for connections on to further destinations.
The station provides a direct interchange between train and shipping services, and is located near several port-area hotels.
It is the nearest station to the old town of Casablanca, and to the modern city centre, around the landmark Casablanca Twin Center. Casa-Port station is being rebuilt in a modern and enlarged configuration.
During the construction, the station is still operational. From , it will provide a close connection from the rail network to the city's new tram network.
Casa-Oasis was originally a suburban commuter station which was fully redesigned and rebuilt in the early 21st century, and officially reopened in as a primary city rail station.
Owing to its new status, all southern intercity train services to and from Casa-Voyageurs now call at Casa-Oasis. ONCF stated in that the refurbishment and upgrading of Casa-Oasis to intercity standards was intended to relieve passenger congestion at Casa-Voyageurs station.
Although Mohammed V International Airport receives most international flights into Morocco,  international tourism in Casablanca is not as developed as it is in cities like Marrakesh.
The Hassan II Mosque , which is the second largest mosque in Africa and the seventh largest in the world, is the city's main tourist attraction.
Colonial architecture near UN Square. Casablanca is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city.
For the film, see Casablanca film. For other uses, see Casablanca disambiguation. Main articles: History of Casablanca and Timeline of Casablanca.
Main article: French protectorate of Morocco. Further information: Operation Torch. Main article: Casablanca Conference.
Main article: Economy of Casablanca. Main article: Architecture of Casablanca. See also: Taxicabs of Morocco.
Sunset at Ain Diab Beach. Hassan II Mosque. Arab League Park. See also: Category:People from Casablanca. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Alternate Versions. Rate This. A cynical American expatriate struggles to decide whether or not he should help his former lover and her fugitive husband escape French Morocco.
Director: Michael Curtiz. Writers: Julius J. Epstein screenplay , Philip G. Available on Amazon. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic.
What's New on Prime Video in June. Top Movies Bucket List. Movie Anniversaries for January Pre Top 38 Movies. Share this Rating Title: Casablanca 8.
Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Which of the top 35 rated films based on a play is your favorite?
Top Rated Movies 49 Won 3 Oscars. Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Humphrey Bogart Rick Blaine Ingrid Bergman Ilsa Lund Paul Henreid Victor Laszlo Claude Rains Captain Louis Renault Conrad Veidt Major Heinrich Strasser Sydney Greenstreet Signor Ferrari Peter Lorre Ugarte S.
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Taglines: As big and timely a picture as ever you've seen! You can tell by the cast it's important!
Edit Did You Know? Trivia Warner Bros. Quotes [ first lines ] Narrator : With the coming of the Second World War, many eyes in imprisoned Europe turned hopefully, or desperately, toward the freedom of the Americas.
Lisbon became the great embarkation point. But, not everybody could get to Lisbon directly, and so a tortuous, roundabout refugee trail sprang up - Paris to Marseilles Here, the fortunate ones through money, or Alternate Versions At the time of release, the film was banned in Germany because the story was considered to be anti-Nazi propaganda by the wartime censors.
After the end of World War II, the picture was finally released in Germany but with around 20 minutes of footage cut all scenes with Major Strasser and all references to Nazism.
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